All alphabet keys in a keyboard are arranged in a particular pattern. This particular pattern is called a keyboard layout. This particular pattern is called a keyboard layout (software). The "keyboard layout" decides that which alphabet is written when you press a key on the keyboard. For most languages, keyboard layout is already available in Windows and other operating systems. A standard keyboard layout has been set in the world to type English, that is why our keyboards are already illustrated with English alphabets and our operating systems already contain the keyboard layout for typing English.
Normally our Windows operating system contains an Urdu keyboard layout, but it has a problem, most of people in Pakistan are using the phonetic keyboard layout which means "A" key is for "ALIF" and "B" key is for "BAY" etc. but Windows has a different default layout, for example here "A" key is for "MEEM" and "B" key is for "SHEEN" etc. To resolve this problem a new phonetic Urdu keyboard has been developed. This "Urdu Keyboard" works on all 32-Bit and 64-Bit versions of Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7.
Keep in mind that "keyboard" is a hardware but a "keyboard layout" is a software. Even Urdu alphabets are not printed on a keyboard (hardware) Urdu can still be typed after installing "Urdu keyboard layout".
"Pak Urdu Installer" is the best and shortest way to install Urdu Keyboard Layout. "Pak Urdu Installer" installs Urdu Keyboard Layout automatically, in addition it activates Urdu language support and installs necessary Urdu font. With "Pak Urdu Installer" you'll be able to type Urdu anywhere easily. Thus you can type Urdu in Search, E-Mail and Chat etc. and also give Urdu name to a folder or file.
If you want to install Urdu keyboard layout manually rather than installing Pak Urdu Installer, you can free download it from the link below and see the installation guide according to your operating system.
A complete map of Phonetic Urdu Keyboard layout (PakSign) is available here.